Asia-Pacific Development Journal

English
Frequency
Semiannual
ISSN: 
2411-9873 (online)
DOI: 
10.18356/cb961558-en
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The Asia-Pacific Development Journal (APDJ) is published twice a year by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. The primary objective of the APDJ is to provide a platform for the exchange of knowledge, experience, ideas, information and data on all aspects of economic and social development issues and concerns facing the region and aims to stimulate policy debate and assist policy formulation. The APDJ provides a scholarly means for bringing together research work by eminent social scientists and development practitioners from the region and beyond for use by a variety of stakeholders. The Journal aims to stimulate policy debate and assist policy formulation in the region.
 

Latest Articles Hide / Show all Abstracts

Mark Number Date Article Volume and Issue Click to Access
  27 Apr 2016 The role of fiscal sustainability in enhancing sustainable economic growth in South Asia: The case of Bangladesh
Tapan Kumar Sarker
The present paper examines the role of fiscal sustainability in achieving sustainable economic growth in the context of South Asia. Excessive government debts have long-term implications and can cause serious intergenerational consequences. In this paper, the role of fiscal sustainability is discussed and the concept of a “just tax system” is analysed. Such a tax system can play an important role in achieving economic growth that is sustainable, rather than being focused on short-term gain. Using the case of Bangladesh, the paper highlights some of the key imminent challenges to transforming a tax system to be more equitable and fair. It finds that current taxation systems are based on short-term frameworks and can leave future generations with the ultimate burden of dealing with the limitations of those systems. Based on the case study, which supports those facts, policymakers in South Asian countries could integrate longterm measures to ensure fiscal sustainability in achieving sustainable economic development.
Volume 22 Issue 1
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/77cb91d7-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/the-role-of-fiscal-sustainability-in-enhancing-sustainable-economic-growth-in-south-asia-the-case-of-bangladesh_77cb91d7-en
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  27 Apr 2016 The implementation of small and medium-sized enterprise development in the rice sector of Myanmar: Empirical research findings
Naylin Oo
This study has three objectives in assessing the implementation of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) development in the rice sector of Myanmar. This study attempted to (a) assess the current status of SME development in the rice sector; (b) identify the level of perceptions of the factors affecting the implementation of SME development in Myanmar; and (c) study the impact of policy implementation on different types of businesses in the rice sector of Myanmar. The factors include policy implementation, market access, financing accessibility, technology acceptance, entrepreneurial capability and internationalization. The conceptual framework was prepared and a questionnaire was designed based on these factors. Thirteen hypotheses were proposed in order to ascertain the factors. The study used active agents of SMEs in three top rice-growing regions of Myanmar as the target population for the primary data. In addition, the representatives of government agencies and business associations as well as relevant experts were alternative sources of data. All of the hypotheses were successfully tested and only 3 out of 13 were accepted. The findings revealed that the capability of implementers and local market access had a highly significant relationship with the income generation aspect of SME development, while financing accessibility and entrepreneurial capability exhibited strong significant influences on the employment generation aspect of SME development. The findings are applicable for policymakers, practitioners, implementers of SME development, and entrepreneurs in Myanmar and other developing countries.
Volume 22 Issue 1
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/3b3dce0b-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/the-implementation-of-small-and-medium-sized-enterprise-development-in-the-rice-sector-of-myanmar-empirical-research-findings_3b3dce0b-en
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  27 Apr 2016 The role of the financial sector in enhancing economic growth in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Kristina Spantig
The financial sector of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic has been developing rapidly in recent years in terms of financial depth, intermediation and distribution. A developed financial sector is the basis for dynamic economic growth. Yet, unsustainable financial liberalization and growth poses risks to financial sector stability. The present report scrutinizes the role of the financial sector in enhancing economic growth in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and aims to answer the question of adequate financial sector supervision with respect to the economy’s development. It is argued that only a prudentially supervised financial sector can enhance the economic growth performance of the country in the medium and long term.
Volume 22 Issue 1
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/f77afc41-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/the-role-of-the-financial-sector-in-enhancing-economic-growth-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic_f77afc41-en
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  27 Apr 2016 Production fragmentation in trade of manufactured goods in India: Prospects and challenges
Sadhana Srivastava, Rahul Sen
The present paper analyses the phenomenon of production fragmentation in trade of manufactured goods in India, using trade data at the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) 5-digit product level. It estimates production fragmentation through a decomposition of intra-industry trade in parts and components into horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade over the period 1994-2012. The paper at the product level finds that aircraft parts and automobile parts and the components industry are emerging areas of production fragmentation in manufactured goods trade over this sample period. It further observes that aircraft parts (SITC 79295) is the only parts and component product to undergo product fragmentation at the higher end of the global value chain and that the auto parts and components industry is found to be experiencing this primarily at the lower end of the value chain.
Volume 22 Issue 1
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/c512ee88-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/production-fragmentation-in-trade-of-manufactured-goods-in-india-prospects-and-challenges_c512ee88-en
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  27 Apr 2016 Strong or weak sustainability: A case study of emerging Asia
Anamika Barua, Bandana Khataniar
Sustainability can be weak or strong, depending on the nature of capital accumulation. Weak sustainability is characterized by a non-declining combined stock of capital and assumes that man-made capital can be replaced with natural capital. Strong sustainability, on the other hand, implies that natural capital cannot be replaced by any other capital. Based on this understanding, the present study analysed the growth patterns of 10 emerging Asian economies using time-series data over a 20-year period. For this purpose, the study used genuine savings as an indicator of weak sustainability and ecological footprint as an indicator of strong sustainability. The study found that the selected Asain economies, particularly the middle-income countries, are following a path of weak sustainability. While the high-income countries are gradually making an attempt, through various policy interventions, to move from a path of weak to strong sustainability, despite genuine savings having stabilized their ecological footprint per capita continues to show an increasing trend.
Volume 22 Issue 1
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9b582978-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/strong-or-weak-sustainability-a-case-study-of-emerging-asia_9b582978-en
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  12 Apr 2016 Financing sustainable development – What can we learn from the Australian experience of reform?
Wayne Swan
Finance is fundamental to supporting sustainable development. It drives investment and jobs, which is the way most people escape poverty. Countries in the developing world face significant financing needs as they seek to modernize their economies, hence the importance of mobilizing all forms of finance (domestic, international, public and private) and ensuring they are put to their most effective use.
Volume 22 Issue 2
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/848859a9-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/financing-sustainable-development-what-can-we-learn-from-the-australian-experience-of-reform_848859a9-en
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  12 Apr 2016 Trade finance for sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific
Sailendra Narain
Over the years, the Asia-Pacific region has maintained its global lead position as the largest user of trade finance. Actively involved in international trade, Asian and Pacific small and medium-sized enterprises have been important contributors for sustaining the region’s lead position. Juxtaposed to the interregional high position enjoyed by the Asia-Pacific region as the largest user of trade finance in the world market, trade within the region is facing a persistent demand-supply mismatch and widening of trade finance gaps. Small and medium-sized enterprises, despite being the largest contributors to Asian international trade, are more adversely affected than large companies, giving rise to operational constraints and challenges. This has prompted some policymakers, national governments and international organizations to address the issues, invite suggestions to halt the persistent trend of the widening of trade finance gaps and take suitable measures to ease the flow of trade finance. Recognizing the importance and significant role of trade finance as an engine of growth, this paper reviews the status of and constraints to easy access to trade finance in Asia and the Pacific; assesses trade finance gaps estimated by institutional surveys; and identifies emerging issues and challenges, especially those faced by the small and medium-sized enterprise sector. Analysing the resultant policy implications, the paper finally brings to the forefront a set of remedial measures, presents recommendations together with a road map for policymakers to consider for implementation. The recommendations are innovative and suggestive of national action and regional cooperation.
Volume 22 Issue 2
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/62f29c61-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/trade-finance-for-sustainable-development-in-asia-and-the-pacific_62f29c61-en
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  12 Apr 2016 Climate finance in the Asia-Pacific region: Trends and innovative approaches
Ilaria Carrozza
Asia and the Pacific is one of the most disaster-prone regions and the possibility that climate change may exacerbate the frequency and severity of extreme weather events is a real threat to progress made towards achieving sustainable development. To secure sustainable development gains and build resilience in the region, there is an urgent need to undertake climate mitigation and adaptation action. Despite an estimated $391 billion in climate finance flows internationally in 2014, the gap between available climate finance and the financing required to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius and adapt to unavoidable impacts of climate change is growing. The present paper offers an overview of the climate finance landscape with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region, and of finance flows from international climate funds, multilateral development banks and subregional and national climate finance initiatives. The ultimate goal of the discussion is to provide policymakers in the region with an understanding of the state of climate finance and recommendations on approaches for mobilizing climate finance in the light of global efforts, regional trends and successful initiatives.
Volume 22 Issue 2
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/b90ce3c6-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/climate-finance-in-the-asia-pacific-region-trends-and-innovative-approaches_b90ce3c6-en
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  12 Apr 2016 Infrastructure financing, public-private partnerships and development in the Asia-Pacific region
Gilberto M. Llanto, Adoración M. Navarro, Ma. Kristina P. Ortiz
Several studies have shown the significant interlinkage between infrastructure and development among various economies in the Asia-Pacific region. Recognizing the central role of infrastructure in contributing to the improvement of human welfare and achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the present paper looks into the following key areas: (1) status of infrastructure in Asia-Pacific economies and infrastructure financing; (2) evidence linking infrastructure and development; (3) public-private partnership (PPP) as an emerging infrastructure financing scheme for developing economies; and (4) the creation of new financial institutions for infrastructure financing in the region. Overall, the Asia-Pacific region’s large and expanding infrastructure needs may be addressed through various forms of financing. While tax revenues and borrowing will continue to be significant sources of financing for most economies in the region, PPPs and other emerging sources could play a major role in addressing infrastructure gaps.
Volume 22 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/8bb4209e-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/infrastructure-financing-public-private-partnerships-and-development-in-the-asia-pacific-region_8bb4209e-en
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  12 Apr 2016 Capital market development and emergence of institutional investors in the Asia-Pacific region
Hans Genberg
Bank credit is traditionally the largest source of finance in the Asia-Pacific region, but the role of capital markets has increased over time. There is substantial heterogeneity across countries. For capital markets to develop further, macroeconomic stability, strong property rights and enforcement of securities laws have been identified as particularly important considerations, together with building a state-of-the-art financial infrastructure, including trading platforms and clearing and settlement systems, and transparent information-sharing arrangements. Institutional investors tend to have long-investment horizons and, as such, contribute to the stability of the local market. It may therefore be appropriate to explore ways to increase their presence in the domestic bond and equity markets. Two possible approaches to accomplish this are to promote savings through national pension funds and insurance companies and to encourage the participation of foreign institutional investors in the domestic market by making it more accessible to them while at the same time being mindful of the risks to domestic financial stability associated with greater openness to international capital flows. Policymakers may also explore ways to take advantage of the emerging field of impact investment to support funding for projects that are intended to generate environmental and social impacts.
Volume 22 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/abfeb31b-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economic-and-social-development/capital-market-development-and-emergence-of-institutional-investors-in-the-asia-pacific-region_abfeb31b-en
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