Human Development Report

2412-3129 (online)
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Human Development Reports (HDRs) have been released most years since 1990 and have explored different themes through the human development approach. They have had an extensive influence on development debate worldwide. The reports, produced by the Human Development Report Office for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), are ensured of editorial independence by the United Nation’s General Assembly
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Human Development Report 1994

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31 Dec 1994
9789210576550 (PDF)

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The 1994 Report introduces a new concept of human security, which equates security with people rather than territories, with development rather than arms. It examines both the national and the global concerns of human security. The Report seeks to deal with these concerns through a new paradigm of sustainable human development, capturing the potential peace dividend, a new form of development co-operation and a restructured system of global institutions.
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  • Foreword
    Behind the blaring headlines of the world's many conflicts and emergencies, there lies a silent crisis-a crisis of underdevelopment, of global poverty, of ever-mounting population pressures, of thoughtless degradation of environment. This is not a crisis that will respond to emergency relief. Or to fitful policy interventions. It requires a long, quiet process of sustainable human development.
  • Acknowledgements
    The preparation of the Report would not have been possible without the support and valuable contributions received from a large number of individuals and organizations.
  • Overview
    The world can never be at peace unless people have security in their daily lives. Future conflicts may often be within nations rather than between them-with their origins buried deep in growing socio-economic deprivation and disparities. The search for security in such a milieu lies in development, not in arms.
  • Towards sustainable human development
    Human beings are born with certain potential capabilities. The purpose of development is to create an environment in which all people can expand their capabilities, and opportunities can be enlarged for both present and future generations. The real foundation of human development is universalism in acknowledging the life claims of everyone.
  • New dimensions of human security
    Fifty years ago, Albert Einstein summed up the discovery of atomic energy with characteristic simplicity: "Everything changed." He went on to predict: "We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if mankind is to survive." Although nuclear explosions devastated agasaki and Hiroshima, humankind has survived its first critical test of preventing worldwide nuclear devastation. But five decades later, we need another profound transition in thinking—from nuclear security to human security.
  • Capturing the peace dividend
    They shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war any more.
  • A new design for development cooperation
    The new demands of human security will require a new and more positive relationship between North and South—a new era of development cooperation.
  • The human development index revisited
    The first Human Development Report (1990) introduced a new way of measuring human development—by combining indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment and income into a composite human development index, the HDI (box 5.1). The Report acknowledged that no single index could ever completely capture such a complex concept. It acknowledged, too, that the HDI would remain subject to improvements, corrections and refinements— both as a result of a growing awareness of its deficiencies, and to accommodate criticisms and suggestions from academics and policy-makers. Also to be emphasized is that the HDI is not intended to replace the other detailed socioeconomic indicators in this Report, for these are essential for a fuller understanding of individual countries.
  • Technical notes
    The HDI for 1994 is calculated on a different basis from that in previous years. Maximum and minimum values have been fixed for the four basic variables-life expectancy (85.0 and 25.0 years), adult literacy (100% and bOlo), mean years of schooling (15 and 0 years) and income (PPP$40,000 and $200). For income, the threshold value is taken to be the global average real GDP per capita of PPP$5,l20. Mulriplcs of incomc bcyond thc threshold are discounted using a progressively higher rate.
  • Bibliographic note
  • References
  • Selected definitions
  • Classification of countries
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