ECE Energy Series

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/d114d3d8-en
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UNECE’s work on sustainable energy is designed to improve access to affordable and clean energy for all and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of the energy sector in the region. It promotes international policy dialogue and cooperation among governments, energy industries and other stakeholders.  The focus  is on energy efficiency, cleaner electricity production from fossil fuels, renewable energy, coal mine methane, natural gas, classification of energy and mineral reserves and resources, and energy security.
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Analysis of National Case Studies on Policy Reforms to Promote Energy Efficiency Investments

Analysis of National Case Studies on Policy Reforms to Promote Energy Efficiency Investments

Synthesis Report Based on Case Studies from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brazil, China, Croatia, Egypt, Georgia, Kuwait, Montenegro, Morocco, South Africa, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zambia You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
UN
15 Dec 2015
Pages:
64
ISBN:
9789210575171 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/d3437079-en

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This publication aims to identify existing barriers to energy efficiency policy implementation and to provide recommendations to policymakers for reforms that can support market formation and foster favourable climate for investments in energy efficiency. It develops a benchmark that should serve as a reference point for policymakers and energy experts working in the field of energy efficiency. This benchmark is a synthesis of policy incentives that should be in place in order to stimulate and ensure successful energy efficiency policy outcomes. The desired policies are divided into three groups: 1) legal, institutional and regulatory; 2) economic and financial; and 3) socio-political. A set of these policies in place at a sufficient degree in a particular country is a basis for successful formulation and implementation of energy efficiency policies and related projects.
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  • Foreword
    In line with the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative of the United Nations Secretary-General, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe is working to help member States secure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy. Achieving these outcomes is essential for the world to develop sustainably. The SE4All initiative has doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030 as one of its three objectives. Improving energy efficiency is the best way to get more out of existing resources, supporting economic growth, and reducing energy costs. However, many barriers impede the collective ambition of sustainable development.
  • Acknowledgements
    This publication was prepared in the framework of the United Nations Development Account project “Promoting Energy Efficiency Investments for Climate Change Mitigation and Sustainable Development”, which was implemented jointly by all five UN Regional Commissions with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) as the lead agency.
  • Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Executive Summary
    Developing countries and countries with economies in transition are confronted with a wide range of economic and environmental problems caused in part by inefficient and polluting energy systems. At the same time their economies provide some of the most promising opportunities for energy efficiency improvements as well as for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this potential, there is a need to develop a systemic and full-fledged strategy to promote self-financing energy efficiency initiatives that can raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental pollution.
  • Introduction
    A global consensus is emerging that progress in energy efficiency is the most effective way of mitigating climate change. This is partly because of the vast potential for energy efficiency improvements to reduce CO2 emissions that can be implemented relatively quickly, cheaply and reliably. Cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and clean energy technologies are self-financing given favourable economic and regulatory conditions exist in markets around the world.
  • Benchmarking
    Developing countries and countries with economies in transition are confronted with a wide range of economic and environmental problems partially caused by their inefficient and polluting energy systems. However, it is notable that at the same time their economies provide some of the most promising opportunities for energy efficiency improvements as well as for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions. In order to fulfill this potential, there is a need to develop a systemic and full-fledged strategy that aims at promoting self-financing energy efficiency initiatives, which can raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental pollution.
  • UNECE region — Review, analysis and options to move forward to established benchmark for selected countries
    Countries of the UNECE region are among the richest and most developed in the world, however the degree of differentiation in the region is significant. Some of the countries can be characterized as highly developed energy markets, using efficient technologies and having universal sustained access to electricity and fuels. Others, nevertheless, still experience inefficiencies in production, transmission and distribution of energy, and a lack of investments into energy efficiency projects. One thing that countries of the region have in common is a very high level of energy consumption. About half of the global energy production is consumed in this region. Therefore, promotion and implementation of the energy efficiency policies in the UNECE region may not only improve individual country’s energy and environmental prospects, but also significantly contribute to a global sustainable energy future.
  • ESCAP region — Review, analysis and options to move forward to established benchmark for selected countries
    The ESCAP region is characterized by vast social, economic, geographical and development disparities. This region is a home to more than 60% of world population. With the rising demand for energy due to ongoing economic and industrial development, the ESCAP region is in need of decisive energy efficiency improvements to guarantee the sustainability of the economic growth of its members. Given the strong political will shown by some countries and the numerous existing national and international programmes, the region is well placed to benefit from more systematic improvements in energy efficiency.
  • ESCWA region — Review, analysis and options to move forward to established benchmark for selected countries
    ESCWA comprises 17 countries located in the Northern Africa and Western Asia. The energy sector of the ESCWA region has played and will continue to play an important role globally as well as within the region. It serves as a main source of revenue through oil and (to a lesser extent) gas export and it could potentially satisfy energy needs for economic and social development. However, more than 20% of the population in rural and urban poor areas of ESCWA member States do not have access to energy services and as many are highly underserviced. Moreover, in many cases, the efficiency of energy production and consumption in the region requires improvement.
  • ECLAC region — Review, analysis and options to move forward to established benchmark for selected countries
    As a result of local availability of natural resources and policies pursued by the member States of ECLAC region, primary energy production in Latin America and the Caribbean has been traditionally based mainly on petroleum. However, since 1970s its share as an energy source has been falling steadily, while the share of natural gas used for primary energy production has been steadily increasing. At the same time, in recent years countries of the ECLAC region have started to formulate and implement more and more projects in the area of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
  • ECA region — Review, analysis and options to move forward to established benchmark for selected countries
    The ECA Region is composed of the 53 countries of different sizes, demographic characteristics and socio-economic development levels. Patterns of energy production and consumption are also very diverse on the African continent. Africa is known to be lagging behind other major world’s regions in terms of level of industrialization, modern energy consumption and electrification rates. Africa has the lowest electrification rate in the world and it is anticipated that half of the population living in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will still be without access to electricity by 2030 if strong policy measures are not taken to reverse the current situation. Yet, the region is endowed with fairly significant energy and other natural resources. In spite of low level of development of its energy resources, the ECA region is a net energy exporter, as it produces more energy than it consumes, particularly in case of oil and natural gas.
  • Comparative analysis of reviewed case studies regarding their current status with respect to the established benchmark
    The analysis of the case studies has shown that all considered countries are dealing with energy efficiency issues to some extent. However, the maturity level of energy efficiency policy varies from country to country and from region to region. Some countries have significantly moved forward towards establishing energy efficient structure of the economy through creating necessary conditions, such as developing institutional base, introducing appropriate laws and regulations, creating financial incentives for attracting investments from national and international sources as well as introducing social policies conducive to increasing energy efficiency and energy savings among general public. At the same time, other countries fail significantly to meet conditions of achieving the benchmark level.
  • Conclusions and recommendations
    This Chapter summarizes the main analytical output and conclusions made while analyzing individual case studies. It also provides a summary of recommendations related to enhancement of energy efficiency investments in project participating countries, based on recommendations given in specific-country sections. Additionally, this Chapter provides recommendations regarding the collaborative measures that UN RCs should undertake to catalyze new energy efficiency investments in the regions.
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