Asia-Pacific Population Journal

English
Frequency
3 times a year
ISSN: 
1564-4278 (online)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/2702b8d0-en
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For over two decades, the Asia-Pacific Population Journal (APPJ) has been taking the pulse of population and social issues unfolding in the region. Published by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), APPJ brings out high quality, evidence-based and forward-looking articles relevant for population policies and programmes in Asia and the Pacific. Prominent population experts, award-winning demographers, as well as lesser known researchers have been contributing articles, documenting over the years the evolution of thinking in this important sphere.
 

Latest Articles Hide / Show all Abstracts

Mark Number Date Article Volume and Issue Click to Access
  24 Oct 2017 The extent of female unpaid work in India: A case of rural agricultural households
UN

This study analyses the extent and nature of female unpaid work in the context of rural households in India. In particular, the study looks at the relationship between land ownership and the extent of domestic duties performed by females, adjusted by family size, in rural agricultural households. Further, the study considers the role of socioeconomic and socio-religious class and the engagement of women in domestic duties. The study uses the Indian National Sample Survey quinquennial round of employment and unemployment survey data for the period 2011-2012. To find out the relationship between various land ownership modalities and domestic duties performed by females, the study makes use of the fractional logit regression model. The empirical result suggests that there is a greater probability of more women workers getting involved in unpaid work as the land-ownership size of the household increases. Further, it is seen that the probability that females engaged in unpaid work is greater for those in casual agricultural households with large land cultivated than for those who are in self-employed households. The study finds that the proportion of rural women engaged in domestic duties is 34 per cent, and the majority of them want to work either on a regular or part-time basis (74 per cent) as well as be able to attend to domestic duties. These results suggest that more effective labour market policy, which will encourage women to participate in paid work, is needed. Moreover, family-friendly policies and initiatives that encourage a more equitable sharing of the burden of care and household chores between males and females are required.

Volume 31 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5e29aba4-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/the-extent-of-female-unpaid-work-in-india-a-case-of-rural-agricultural-households_5e29aba4-en
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  24 Oct 2017 Socio-Cultural inequality in women’s health service utilization in Nepal
UN

This paper investigates caste/ethnicity based inequity in women’s health service utilization, particularly focusing on antenatal care (ANC) in the socioculturally complex patriarchal context of Nepal. Numerous studies worldwide have examined the effects of various factors contributing to antenatal care. However, much less is known about the influence of caste/ ethnicity on women’s health-care utilization in Nepal. Using the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) Data 2011, a multilevel logistic regression was run with results suggesting that both non-economic (caste/ethnicity) and economic (household wealth) factors influence women’s health-care utilization. First, women who belong to a disadvantaged caste/ethnicity such as the Hill Janajati, Hill and Terai Dalit and Muslims are significantly less likely to make four plus antenatal care visits compared to the advantaged Bahun/Chhetri mothers. Second, mothers who belong to the wealthier category are significantly advantaged in terms of using antenatal care services compared to the poorest category of mothers. Third, contrary to the common assumption, mothers from the advantaged caste/ethnicity (Bahun/Chhetri and Newar) do not always fare better in all aspects of life; when from the poorest households, they are not significantly different in terms of antenatal care compared the poorest mothers who are from a disadvantaged caste/ethnicity. These findings offer evidence against the misassumption that individuals of advantaged caste/ ethnicities are always privileged, suggesting that health policies should take into account the intertwining effects of both caste/ethnicity and economic status in order to improve women’s health and well-being.

Volume 31 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/5ac50c07-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/socio-cultural-inequality-in-women-s-health-service-utilization-in-nepal_5ac50c07-en
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  24 Oct 2017 The cost of high suicide rates in Japan and the Republic of Korea: Reduced life expectancies
UN

Japan and the Republic of Korea, while having some of the highest life expectancies in the world, also have the highest suicide rates. This study uses actuarial multiple decrement techniques to calculate the reduction in life expectancy due to suicide in these countries. As of 2013, suicides shortened life expectancy at birth by 1.12 per cent in Japan and 0.83 per cent in the Republic of Korea. Most critically affected by suicide are Japanese males, with a 1.50 per cent reduction in life expectancy at birth. Additionally, the Republic of Korea sees a 0.80 per cent reduction in life expectancy at age 60 – a disturbingly high percentage when considering the high mortality rates from natural causes of death at this age. These results suggest that high suicide rates in Japan and the Republic of Korea have massive implications in terms of social costs and economic productivity.

Volume 31 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/6a8a7d7b-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/the-cost-of-high-suicide-rates-in-japan-and-the-republic-of-korea-reduced-life-expectancies_6a8a7d7b-en
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  24 Oct 2017 The importance of husbands’ engagement in family planning discussion to promote contraception use for birth spacing in rural India
UN

The objective of this study is to assess whether recent marital discussion on family planning is associated with contraceptive use among young couples residing in rural Maharashtra, India. The study methods used involved analysis of baseline data collected from 867 couples participating in the CHARM Family Planning evaluation trial. Participants were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviour, and a six-item scale on marital discussions concerning family planning (including family size and contraceptive use) over the preceding six months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed associations between marital family planning discussions and current modern contraceptive use for birth spacing, adjusting for demographics.

Volume 31 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/f04741ff-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/the-importance-of-husbands-engagement-in-family-planning-discussion-to-promote-contraception-use-for-birth-spacing-in-rural-india_f04741ff-en
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  24 Oct 2016 Work-life balance and time use: Lessons from Thailand
Phanwin Yokying, Budsara Sangaroon, Tassanee Sushevagul, Maria S. Floro
The multiple responsibilities faced by married women in Thailand have made work-life balance an important issue for policymakers, as long work hours and lack of time for socializing and leisure can lead to a deterioration of health and well-being. Using the merged 2009 Thailand Labour Force Survey and National Time Use Survey data, the paper examines work-life balance situations by analyzing the determinants of unpaid work, market work and leisure time among 12,437 married individuals aged 25 to 60 years old. Rural women cope with tensions between their market work and household tasks by reducing their leisure time. Urban women manage their care responsibilities by reducing their time spent on market work. Although both women and men confront tensions between household and market work and between work and leisure, the tensions are likely to be more intense for women, affecting their participation in the labour market as well as their ability to achieve a healthy work-life balance. Some policy options to address this issue conclude this paper.
Volume 31 Issue 1
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/1a175191-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/work-life-balance-and-time-use-lessons-from-thailand_1a175191-en
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  24 Oct 2016 Bargaining power and the household division of labour: Evidence from 2008 China time-use survey
Shi Fengdan, Pan Xuhua, Caryn Bruyere, Maria S. Floro
Analysis of time use patterns and the role of bargaining power enhance our understanding of household dynamics and factors impacting women’s labour market participation in China. It is a useful tool for policymakers seeking to promote gender equality and improve women’s well-being. Using a sample of 13,505 couples from the 2008 China National Time Use Survey (CTUS), this study examines the relationship between bargaining power and the amount of time allocated to household and care work and market work. It is found that wives spend a longer time working in a day (556 minutes) than husbands (520 minutes). The findings also show that the impact of bargaining power on women’s time in unpaid work is complicated. Husbands with higher bargaining power (as proxied by the education gap between spouses) spend less time on housework and more time on market work. However, the education gap does not influence women’s time spent on household work, while the bargaining power proxied by age gap between spouses does not affect the husband’s household work time. Having young children increases the time spent in housework for both spouses, but the wife’s housework increases considerably more than her husband’s (89.3 minutes vs. 29.8 minutes). The presence of older, retired household members reduces the wife’s housework and increases her market work, indicating their support in domestic chores performed by women.
Volume 31 Issue 1
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/bb63671b-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/bargaining-power-and-the-household-division-of-labour-evidence-from-2008-china-time-use-survey_bb63671b-en
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  24 Oct 2016 How does public infrastructure (or lack thereof) affect time use in Mongolia?
Mungunsuvd Terbish, Maria S. Floro
This study examines the impact of access to basic infrastructure such as water supply and sanitation systems on the unpaid work time of women and men in Mongolia. This is particularly important to address the country’s human development goals, given that only one out of five households has piped-in water and inadequate sanitation remains prevalent especially in rural areas. Using the 2011 National Time Use Survey (TUS) of Mongolia that covers 4,000 households across five geographic regions, the study employs the Tobit model to explore the relationship between household access to basic infrastructure and the amount of time spent on collecting water and household work. The results provide empirical evidence on how lack of adequate infrastructure such as water and sanitation systems can impose a greater unpaid work burden on women and lengthens the time required to perform activities related to household survival and social reproduction. The findings are likely to vary across regions and wealth tertiles.
Volume 31 Issue 1
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/ea68eb4c-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/how-does-public-infrastructure-or-lack-thereof-affect-time-use-in-mongolia_ea68eb4c-en
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  24 Oct 2016 The present and future of time-use analysis in developing countries
Maria S. Floro, Elizabeth M. King
The findings of this paper show that time-use data can deepen our understanding of human behaviour, such as how women, men and children across socioeconomic strata conduct their daily lives and make choices. Based on a review of existing research it shows that time-use information reveals a much wider range of economic contributions from women, men and children than conventional measures of economic activities, and yields more comprehensive estimates of aggregate production. In addition, household production and caregiving contribute to all aspects of the well-being of household members and yet typically remain unmeasured. Time-use data and analyses uncover the commonly hidden time dimensions of income poverty by exposing the time pressure faced by household members. The effectiveness of various development policies and investments will be a major concern in the coming years as countries and development agencies work towards the 17 SDGs. This review of time-use research shows that any assessment of that effectiveness can be enriched by documenting and analyzing how those policies and programmes lead to shifts in people’s time allocation. Cost-effectiveness measures of programmes and investments are incomplete when they ignore the required time inputs of users. There have been major improvements in conceptualizing, collecting and analyzing time-use information. Many countries are now collecting time-use data, but many more improvements are needed to address the practical difficulties that face developing countries in implementing data collection instruments.
Volume 31 Issue 1
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/748e616d-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/the-present-and-future-of-time-use-analysis-in-developing-countries_748e616d-en
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  08 Sep 2016 Scenarios of population change in the coastal Ganges Brahmaputra Delta (2011-2051)
Sylvia Szabo, Dilruba Begum, Sate Ahmad, Zoe Matthews, Peter Kim Streatfield
This paper provides an overview of population dynamics and scenarios of population change in the environmentally vulnerable coastal Ganges Brahmaputra Delta region. The main data sources used for the study include the most recent and historical census data, data from the Sample Vital Registration System (SVRS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The research adopts the standard cohort component approach for population projections and provides population estimates for the period from 2011 to 2051. Research outcomes include scenarios of future population change in the coastal Ganges Brahmaputra Delta region and district-level population projections by age and sex. The results show that population growth is likely to continue in some, but not all, districts in the study area. The results also suggest that future migration flows are most likely to be the deciding component of population change in the study area. Given the expected shifts in population distribution and population structure, policy initiatives will have to address the challenges related to informal settlements and population ageing.
Volume 30 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/35479cd3-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/scenarios-of-population-change-in-the-coastal-ganges-brahmaputra-delta-2011-2051_35479cd3-en
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  08 Sep 2016 Demography of a Small Island Nation: Findings from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing of the Republic of the Marshall Island
Bhakta B. Gubhaju, Arthur Jorari, Gerald Haberkorn
The 2011 Census of Population and Housing of the Republic of the Marshall Islands is the eleventh such census conducted since 1920. The main objective of the present paper is to highlight trends in population growth, fertility, mortality and migration, using the 2011 census. The 2011 census, conducted on 5 April 2011, recorded a total population of 53,158; it collected comprehensive information on the fertility history of women 15 to 54 years of age, which included questions on children ever born and children still living by sex. The fertility history also included the date of birth of the last child born alive. These data have been used to estimate current fertility and to indirectly estimate life expectancy at birth and infant mortality by sex. The current paper provides recommendations on: relevant government policies to improve existing or emerging socioeconomic conditions revealed by the census results; and areas of census planning, field management and data utilization in the Marshall Islands and in the rest of the Pacific countries.
Volume 30 Issue 2
Click to Access: 
    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/cdf66074-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/population-and-demography/demography-of-a-small-island-nation-findings-from-the-2011-census-of-population-and-housing-of-the-republic-of-the-marshall-island_cdf66074-en
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