Valuing Forest Ecosystem Services

A Training Manual for Planners and Project Developers

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The aim of this manual is to enhance understanding of ecosystem services and their valuation. The specific target group comprises governmental officers in planning units and field-level officers and practitioners in key government departments in Bangladesh responsible for project development, including the Ministry of Environment and Forests and its agencies. Most of the examples and case studies presented herein, therefore, are tailored to the Bangladesh context, but the general concepts, approaches and methods can be applied to a broad spectrum of situations. This manual focuses on valuing forest-related ecosystem services, including those provided by trees outside forests. It is expected to improve valuation efforts and help ensure the better use of such values in policymaking and decision making.




A changing climate, a growing population, increasing demand for food and energy, expanding urban areas and many other factors pose severe threats to natural resources and biodiversity worldwide. The degradation of ecosystems can result in the potentially irreversible loss of ecosystem functions and services, with the ultimate effect of reducing human well-being. One of the biggest challenges facing humanity, therefore, is to manage natural resources in such a way that trade-offs between the increasing needs of the global population and the maintenance of ecosystem health are avoided or minimized.


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