About 400 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to even basic water services. The majority of these people live in rural areas (WHO/UNICEF, 2021). Even cities, where household connections are more common, suffer from supply outages and unreliable flow due to high and increasing demand (Healy et al., 2020). Therefore, the overwhelming priority for most countries is to improve access, first to basic services and eventually to safely managed household supplies. However, climate change places a further pressure on available surface water resources, leading to recurrent water scarcity and droughts threatening the progress made so far (Taylor et al., 2013a). Extensive growth in water demand due to population growth and rapid urbanization adds to the pressure, and increases the need for an expansion in climate-resilient water services.

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