Freedom from Fear, Issue No.12
  • E-ISSN: 25190709


The term “environmental refugees” was used for the first time in 1985, when the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) researcher Essam El-Hinnawi defined these persons as those “who have been forced to leave their traditional habitat, temporarily or permanently, because of a marked environmental disruption (natural and/or triggered by people) that jeopardized their existence and/or seriously affected the quality of their life.”

Sustainable Development Goals:
Related Subject(s): Human Rights and Refugees

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