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2008年关于工业统计的国际建议

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The present publication is a component of the United Nations Statistics Division initiative for strengthening countries methodological and operational foundation for industrial statistics. Although this publication makes recommendations for industrial statistics, many elements of its recommendations, like those for the definition and delineation of statistical units and its guidance on a data-collection strategy and data compilation practices, are generally applicable to the development of an integrated economic statistics system for business statistics in general, with a view to collecting, compiling and reporting basic economic data across economic activities, in the most cost-efficient manner, consistent with macroeconomic statistics. This publication is designed to provide a comprehensive methodological framework for the collection and reporting of industrial statistics in all countries, irrespective of the level of development of their statistical systems.

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第 一 章 工业统计范围

总体而言,“经济活动”一词指一个过程,即某个实体利用劳动 力、资本、货物和服务为生产特定产品(货物和服务)而开展的活动总称。 活动特征包括:(a)资源投入;(b)生产过程;以及(c)产品的产出。按 照惯例,一项活动指生产同类产品的一个过程。一般认为一项活动由一个简单 过程组成或可能包括一系列子过程,每个子过程都可按照不同活动类型进行分 类。出于统计目的,可以对从事特定活动的实体作为简单或复杂实体来处理。 不需按照所从事的活动将简单实体再进行细分;按照定义,复杂实体由数个次 实体组成,每个实体被视为从事一项具体活动。从事一种以上经济活动的实体 可能生产一种以上产品。如果簿记允许或具有进行区分的某种统计手段,可将 这种实体再细分为不同组成部分,其中每个部分从事的生产活动不同,生产的 产品也不同;在这种情况下,这种实体的各个组成部分也构成一个统计单位。

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