Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean 2008-2009

Policies for Creating Quality Jobs

image of Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean 2008-2009

This publication comes at a critical point in the economic development of the Latin American and Caribbean region. A growth phase that the region's recent history cannot equal in nature and duration has come to an end and output is contracting. The first part of this edition looks at the channels through which the crisis is affecting the economies of the region and its impact on variables such as economic growth, employment and external-sector indicators. It also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the countries and concludes with a discussion of the outlook for the second half of the year. The second part discusses policies for creating quality jobs, including challenges and opportunities for labor institutions and labor markets, labor-market policies for youth and women. This CD-ROM also contains the electronic versions of the printed publication. The statistical information reflects data available up to 30 June 2009.



Challenges and opportunities for labour institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean

Between the 1950s and 1960s, the Latin American and Caribbean region underwent a process of rapid economic growth, in which the labour markets changed dramatically. In addition, the labour supply rose quickly as a result of high birth rates and lower mortality, as well as (especially from the 1970s onwards) a surge in female participation. At the same time, levels of schooling rose following the expansion of the education system. High economic growth generated significant labour demand in modern sectors of the economy, which in turn pushed up the proportion of waged non-agricultural work in the occupational structure. The share of the agricultural sector in employment dropped sharply, while employment in secondary and tertiary activities grew. Lastly, average productivity increased, albeit with major intersectoral and intrasectoral gaps.


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