Effective Market Access for Least Developed Countries’ Services Exports

Case Study on Utilizing the World Trade Organization Services Waiver in Senegal

image of Effective Market Access for Least Developed Countries’ Services Exports

The LDC Waiver is a legal tool that enables WTO Members to sidestep their obligation to treat all services imports equally under the Most-Favoured Nation (MFN) clause through the granting preferential treatment to services and service exporters from a Least Developed Country (LDC). It is similar to the “Enabling Clause” for goods within the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), except that the Waiver only benefits LDCs, not all developing countries. It operates thus as an “LDC-only Enabling Clause for services”. The Waiver only enables preferences, it does not require WTO Members to grant them, nor provide them with specific ideas or tools to facilitate LDCs’ exports into their markets. This paper presents the findings of the pilot study on Senegal. Focusing on a selection of services sectors of particular export interest to Senegal, this case-study assesses, where appropriate on an anecdotal basis, whether and to what extent the preferences granted by WTO Members respond to the market access, regulatory and other barriers experienced by Senegal’s services exporters in their export market(s). By converging all available sources of information, the analysis aims to identify the relevance of the notified preferences for Senegal’s services exports, possible gaps and opportunities for further development of improved market access mechanisms, as well as its utilization by LDC services exporters.




This publication forms part of the background research for the study titled “Effective market access for least developed countries’ services exports; An analysis of the World Trade Organization services waiver for least developed countries” (UNCTAD/DITC/TNCD/2019/1). The research was originally undertaken in 2017 and has been released for publication to help policymakers understand some of the intricacies behind the original study. Some details may have since changed.


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error