Social Panorama of Latin America 2017

image of Social Panorama of Latin America 2017

In this edition of Social Panorama of Latin America, ECLAC has addressed the questions posed by the countries of the region in three major areas: income inequality between individuals and households and how these relate to labour market dynamics; the evolution of poverty and its determinants; and the effects of pension systems on equality. The poverty analysis in this 2017 edition is based on a major update of the methodology used; this offers improved comparability between countries, which is an essential input for conducting an overall analysis of how poverty and its determinants have evolved. This effort has led to the creation of a new regional data series. The new statistical series using the national data will be made public by ECLAC in the first half of 2018 once the consultations with the respective countries have been concluded. In this edition, as well as continuing the analysis of the dimensions of social inequality given in previous years, Commission presents a new study of the demographic context and labour market inequalities, and how these relate to the coverage and quality of pension benefits.

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Updated review of poverty in Latin America

In this edition of the Social Panorama of Latin America, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) provides an update on the magnitude and trends of poverty and related factors. Section A of this chapter analyses the evolution of poverty and extreme poverty since 2002, and it reviews recent trends in both indicators in the individual countries, based on the corresponding national estimates. Section B then describes how poverty has affected certain population groups depending on gender, age and area of residence. It then examines some of the factors driving poverty trends and analyses the impact of changes in average household income and its distribution and the changes observed in the different components of income in households in situations of poverty. In keeping with the central theme of this edition of the Social Panorama of Latin America, section D analyses the sufficiency of labour income and pensions as multiples of the poverty line; and it also reviews the effects of the levels of each type of income on the situation of poverty and extreme poverty. The chapter closes with a brief methodological annex on updating ECLAC poverty estimates.

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