Achieving Global Sustainability

Policy Recommendations

image of Achieving Global Sustainability
This book looks at how to achieve a more secure level of global sustainability and gathers recommendations. It analyzes the relationship between globalization and sustainability, evaluating arguments on the necessity of fundamental changes in economic growth and discusses the radical evolutions in socioeconomic development in terms of social common capital, social discipline and economic valuation of the environment. The publication also examines strategies for achieving a sustainable society and presents an overview on adaptation for environmental change. Finally, it introduces policy recommendations for global sustainability, including those advocating a low-carbon society by 2050, a Green New Deal as a means of integrating policies, climate security, and international discipline.



Adaptation to environmental change

Integrated assessment models (IAMs) of climate change combine dynamic descriptions of the energy-economy system, the climate system and climate impacts to support the formulation of global, and possibly regional, climate policy. Originally they were designed to inform mitigation policy, but some are now applied in the context of adaptation policy as well. This chapter reviews the modelling of climate impacts and adaptation in global IAMs, including both models with an economic focus and those with a science focus. Key advances in the representation of climate impacts in IAMs during the last decade include improved consideration of differences in impacts across regions, the development of nonmonetary reduced-form models and coupling global IAMs with regional and sectoral impact models to assess climate change together with other sustainability issues. Further advances include a stronger focus on probabilistic analysis and attempts at considering large-scale climate instabilities. Adaptation has received only limited attention in global IAMs so far, mostly due to the mismatch in spatial scales at which mitigation and adaptation decisions are generally made. Some recent IAMs attempt to identify optimal levels of adaptation in climate-sensitive sectors or do include adaptation to climate change explicitly as a decision variable. The main reason for the consideration of adaptation in global welfare-maximizing IAMs is to assess the sensitivity of mitigation targets to different assumptions about the magnitude and effectiveness of adaptation.


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