Environmental Performance Reviews: Turkmenistan

image of Environmental Performance Reviews: Turkmenistan

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) carries out Environmental Performance Reviews (EPR) in its member States that are not members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in order to improve their environmental management by recommending ways to achieve better policy implementation. This first EPR of Turkmenistan covers 13 issues related to policymaking, planning and implementation, the financing of environmental policies and projects and the integration of environmental concerns into economic sectors, in particular the sustainable management and protection of water resources, waste management, air pollution, forestry, biodiversity and protected areas, energy and climate change.



Biodiversity and protected areas

The landscapes of Turkmenistan are dominated by the lowland deserts and xeric shrublands of the Karakum Desert, which account for some 79 per cent of the country’s area (Figure 10.1). Although the medium-height mountainous areas of Kopetdag, Badkhyz, Balkhan and Kugitang occupy only 2 per cent of the territory, they harbour two thirds of the country’s species. The alluvial plain of the Amu Darya River in the north-east includes significant tugai forests. There are also lakes (many temporary) and smaller rivers, most of which end blindly in the Karakum Desert or are entirely used for irrigation. Anthropogenic landscapes include oases and the 1,445 km Karakum Canal. All of the landscape types comprise a variety of ecosystems with their specific flora and fauna (Map 10.1).


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