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Environmental Performance Reviews: Bosnia and Herzegovina

First Review

image of Environmental Performance Reviews: Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Environmental Performance Review of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the twentieth in the series published by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The report covers twelve issues of importance to Bosnia and Herzegovina, divided into three sections, including the framework for environmental policy, management of pollution and natural resources and economic and sectoral integration. Among the issues receiving special attention are the policy, legal and institutional framework, public participation in decision-making and access to information; the use and supply of water resources, including drinking water; land use, agriculture and biodiversity; management of waste and contaminated sites, eco-tourism and energy.

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Economic instruments and privatization

In the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina was one of the poorer republics. In 1990, its gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$ 10.6 billion, or over US$ 2,400 per capita. On the positive side, it had a relatively diversified economy, a welldeveloped industrial base, among the best in the region, and a highly educated labour force. Its economy was relatively open (the share of total trade in GDP was over 35%) and market-oriented (with more than half its exports directed to Western markets). At the same time, Bosnia and Herzegovina supplied raw materials to the other republics and imported final products from them. It was also one of the most polluted parts of the former Yugoslavia.

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