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After Oppression

Transitional Justice in Latin America and Eastern Europe

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The decline of authoritarianism in Latin America and Eastern Europe marked the end of a dark chapter in the history of these societies. In both regions, transition to democracy was accompanied by distinct efforts to come to terms with the traumatic experiences of the past and to demand accountability from the oppressors. The impact of these efforts rippled far beyond national boundaries, expanding the frontiers of international justice, and yielding indelible lessons and inspiration.

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Accountability for Communist crimes and restitution for victims in Slovenia

During the Second World War, Communists around Josip Broz Tito gradually took full control over the territory of Yugoslavia. Communist order was formally initiated at the first assembly of the Anti-Fascist Council of the People’s Liberation of Yugoslavia (Antifašističko Vijéce Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije, AVNOJ), held on 29 November 1943. Members of the assembly adopted AVNOJ decrees, thus establishing an interim legislative framework for the new economic order. The adoption of decrees was based on the right of self-determination of all nations, as they termed it (AVNOJ, 1943). However, at this time, some senior British political and military personnel were supporting Tito, the Commanding Officer of the Partisan Army, thus giving Tito legitimacy and enabling a smoother revolution. The support was formalized at the Teheran Conference in November 1943, followed by the Treaty of Vis in June 1944. Based on these, Tito became President of the interim government and the Partisan Army became the official army to fight the Axis powers. The Allies ratified the Treaty of Vis at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 and the initiators of the Communist order were given the legitimacy they needed.

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