Finance for City Leaders Handbook

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Cities are a driving force of the 21st century. Through bringing large numbers of people into close proximity, they spark economic growth, foster innovation, and generate prosperity. But they face the pressing challenges of creating a livable environment for their residents, enabling economic activity that benefits all citizens, and fostering urban development that is environmentally sustainable, equitable, and resilient to disruptive forces. Finance for City Leaders presents an up-to-date, comprehensive, and in-depth analysis of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization and the various financing tools municipalities have at their disposal. By providing city leaders with a wide array of financing solutions that emphasize sustainability, inclusion, and financial autonomy, this publication contributes to the growing conversation on how cities can look inward to finance major capital expenditures, infrastructure maintenance and operation, and public services.



Financing planned city extension

In the world’s rapidly urbanizing countries, the question is not if cities will grow, but how. Planned city extension (PCE) is an alternative to unplanned urban expansion. In many countries, the pace of urban expansion is surpassing what is planned and served by public infrastructure. The result is informal, unplanned, segregated, and sprawling developments on the urban periphery. Wealthier communities create disconnected private infrastructure surrounded by walls, and poorer communities form neighborhoods without access to basic services. Planned extension strategies are explicitly called for in the New Urban Agenda as a means to improve connectivity, enhance productivity, and support resource efficiency.


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