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Secrets of Intellectual Property

A Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Exporters

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Guide in form of questions and answers dealing with intellectual property (IP) issues, aimed at small and medium-sized exporters and trade support institutions – explains basic concepts and principles regarding patents, trademarks, industrial designs, copyright, confidential business information, and geographical indications; covers questions relevant to ownership of rights by employees, contracting, licensing and technology transfer; highlights importance of IP issues when drawing business, marketing and export plans and strategies, and deals with IP rights protection abroad; looks at link between IP and quality regulations and standards, packaging and labelling, electronic commerce and use of information technology; considers valuation and financial aspects of IP rights; focuses on the application of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement).

English Spanish, French

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What is collective management of copyright and related rights?

There are many cases where, for practical reasons that relate to certain types of use, individual management of rights is virtually impossible. An author is not physically capable of monitoring all uses of his or her works. An author cannot, for instance, contact every single radio or television station to negotiate licences and remuneration. Conversely, it is not practical for a broadcasting organization to seek specific permission from every author each time it wishes to use a copyrighted work. An average of 60,000 musical works are broadcast on television every year, so thousands of owners of rights would have to be approached for authorization. The very impracticability of managing these activities individually, both for the owner of rights and for the user, creates a need for collective management organizations, whose role is to bridge the gap between them in these key areas, among others.

English Spanish, French

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