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Bordering on Control

Combating Irregular Migration in North America and Europe

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This publication evaluates the cost-effectiveness of both external and internal migration-control instruments in the USA, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It discusses whether increased spending on Official Development Assistance would reduce migration flows to those countries and proposes recommendations on how migration management objectives can be achieved.

English

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Southern Europe

Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain are new countries of immigration; they became net immigration areas only in the 1980s and 1990s. Unlike northern Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, economically motivated immigration into southern Europe occurred during an era of relatively fast economic growth as well as high unemployment rates, so that, e.g. Italy and Spain attracted migrants in the 1990s despite double-digit unemployment rates. The combination of immigration and high unemployment raised questions about (a) structural unemployment and lack of flexibility, as workers in southern Spain and Italy proved unwilling to accept some local jobs and were unwilling to migrate to jobs in the north and (b) extensive underground economies in which many of the “unemployed” actually worked for cash wages.

English

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