Bordering on Control

Combating Irregular Migration in North America and Europe

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This publication evaluates the cost-effectiveness of both external and internal migration-control instruments in the USA, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It discusses whether increased spending on Official Development Assistance would reduce migration flows to those countries and proposes recommendations on how migration management objectives can be achieved.



Northern Europe

Sweden has been reasonably successful in applying both internal and external controls to manage migration in the 1990s, a success attributed to know-how and well-trained people, and well established aliens legislation (Brochmann and Hammar, 1999: 169). About 13 per cent of the nine million Swedish residents are immigrants or children of immigrants. There has been freedom of movement within the Nordic countries since 1954, and much of the labour migration that occurred in Scandinavia until the late 1960s involved Finns moving to Sweden. Guestworker migration from southern Europe began in the late 1960s, later than in France or Germany, and with an important legal difference after 1965 – non-Nordic foreigners needed to have a work permit before they arrived in Sweden. Guestworker migration into Sweden was concentrated in three years from 1969 to 1971, and was stopped because of union opposition in 1972 (Brochmann and Hammar, 1999: 174).


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