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Mitigating Climate Change Through Investments in Fossil Fuel Technologies

A Synthesis Report Based on National Case Studies from Afghanistan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan

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This report is the principal written deliverable of the project "Mitigating climate change through attracting foreign direct investment in advanced fossil fuel technologies", financed from the United Nations Development Account (UNDA). The project, implemented in 2010-2012, covered nine countries: Afghanistan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The report takes into account findings of the national baseline studies, drafted for each of the nine countries between November 2011 and August 2012. The report summarizes and interprets the experiences, policies, and plans for the future of each country in developing a thermal electricity sector using advanced technologies that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and exploit the countries’ fossil fuel resources.

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Electricity sector overview

The nine project countries range from large and high-growth countries with large and rapidly expanding electricity sectors such as China and India to smaller and relatively low-growth countries with small electricity sectors such as Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Mongolia, and Kyrgyzstan. In between are Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, which inherited planned economies, substantial electricity infrastructure, and sizeable fuel resources from centralized Soviet planning. (Of course Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and to a certain extent Mongolia are also former socialist economies with infrastructures built primarily by Soviet centralized planning.)

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