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World population policies 2013

image of World population policies 2013
This report provides a comprehensive overview of key aspects of population policies and dynamics for 197 countries since the mid-1970s. Updated biennially, it documents changes in key aspects of Government views and policies related to population size and growth, population age structure, fertility, reproductive health and family planning, health and mortality, spatial distribution and internal migration, and international migration. The report also includes two-page country profiles, with the first page containing information on changes in the Government views and policies and the second page containing data on selected population indicators corresponding to 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, the most recent revision year.

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Health and mortality

Increased longevity with better health and well-being has been one of the greatest human achievements of all times. Life expectancy at birth for the world’s population has increased from 47 years in 1950–1955 to 70 years in 2010–2015, which together with fertility, has contributed to an increase in the world’s population from about 2.5 billion in 1950 to more than 7 billion today (United Nations, 2013c). A major contributor to the increase in longevity has been the decline of child mortality. Worldwide, mortality under age five has declined dramatically from an estimated 214 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1950–1955 to 52 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010–2015 (United Nations, 2013c). These improvements in child mortality and longevity are associated with the “epidemiological transition”, where the pattern of morbidity and mortality shifts from predominately infectious and parasitic diseases towards a pattern with a growing burden of chronic and degenerative diseases.

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