Handbook on Women and Imprisonment

image of Handbook on Women and Imprisonment

This handbook aims to assist legislators, policymakers, prison managers, staff and non-governmental organizations in implementing international standards and norms related to the gender-specific needs of women prisoners, in particular the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Offenders and Non-Custodial Measures for Women Offenders ('the Bangkok Rules'). It further aims to increase awareness about the profile of female offenders and to suggest ways in which to reduce their unnecessary imprisonment, including by rationalising legislation and criminal justice policies, and by providing a wide range of alternatives to prison at all stages of the criminal justice process. The handbook forms part of a series of tools developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to support countries in implementing the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform.



Research, planning, evaluation and public awareness-raising

Efforts shall be made to organize and promote comprehensive, result oriented research on the offences committed by women, the reasons that trigger women’s confrontation with the criminal justice system, the impact of secondary criminalization and imprisonment on women, the characteristics of women offenders, as well as programmes designed to reduce reoffending by women, as a basis for effective planning, programme development and policy formulation to respond to the social reintegration needs of women offenders.


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