Industry 4.0: Concept and main characteristics

Industry 4.0, often interchangeably called the fourth industrial revolution, refers to the smart and connected production systems made possible by new technologies, particularly involving the increased use of automation and data exchanges (UNIDO, 2017). The technologies identified as part of industry 4.0 vary by source, yet it is commonly understood that artificial intelligence, the Internet of things, big data, robotics and three-dimensional printing are integral parts of this new wave (UNCTAD, 2019a; UNCTAD, 2021a).

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