The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all dimensions of human security, including economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community and political systems (Robles, 2022). Although a global pandemic was a known risk, the world was not prepared for its direct or wider systemic impacts. Diseases had previously spread from animals to humans, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease. However, pandemic preparedness measures were myopic, focusing on health system responses, not on prevention, coordination and leadership, or the likely wider effects of a global pandemic (Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response, 2021a). A combination of pre-existing vulnerabilities and exposure amplified risk and led to cascading, systemic impacts, as outlined in the conceptual model in the figure that illustrates a systemic impact web.

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