With the exception of the African lion, all big cat species are listed in CITES Appendix I, meaning international commercial trade in these species is illegal except under a few narrow conditions.1 This chapter focuses on the illegal market for tiger products, specifically bone products, but also touches on the markets for products from other species of big cats, like lion and jaguar, some of which are used in ways similar to, in place of, or sold as, tiger products. The focus on bone products stems from the fact that almost two-thirds of tiger seizure incidents in World WISE from 1999-2018 corresponded to either tiger bone products or tiger medicinal products, which themselves are primarily made from bone.

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