Countries along the Mediterranean Sea share a common heritage, analogies in lifestyle and values, exposure to climate and environmental risks and impacts, urbanization and coastal erosion, and an increasing tourism pressure. The contrasts are also significant: throughout the past decade, gaps have persisted between Northern Mediterranean Countries (NMCs) and Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries (SEMCs) in terms of demographic dynamics, human development, access to natural resources and environmental protection. These differences lead to large inequalities in resilience and adaptive capacity to deal with current and projected environmental and climate changes. Recent estimates of the cost of environmental degradation attest to the magnitude of these impacts, which are exacerbated in situations of conflict.

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